SHOTTON; David. Semantic publishing: the coming revolution in scientific journal publishing. Learned Publishing, v. 22, n. 2, Apr. 2009, p. 85–94. doi:10.1087/2009202.
- As the primary dissemination channel and public record of new research results, journal publication is a vital ingredient of the scholarly workflow, and its key commodity, the original research article, is of primary importance out of all proportion to its intrinsic worth.
– The Web has in recent years shaped revolutionary change within the scientific community, as a truly disruptive technology.
- ‘Semantic Web’: ‘It does not require complex artificial intelligence to interpret human ideas, but ‘relies solely on the machine’s ability to solve well-defined problems by performing well-defined operations on well-defined data’.
– Machine-readable metadata for journal publications and other data sources, using agreed semantic web standards that permit computers to assist in the tasks of information discovery and integration
Publicação semântica: In the present context, I define ‘semantic publishing’ as anything that enhances the meaning of a published journal article, facilitates its automated discovery, enables its linking to semantically related articles, provides access to data within the article in actionable form, or facilitates integration of data between papers.
– These semantic enhancements increase the intrinsic value of journal articles, by increasing the ease by which information, understanding and knowledge can be extracted.
– For authors, the benefits of online manuscript submission and revision are significant, while the easing of page limits for purely online journals, and the possibility of publishing supplementary information, means that additional data can be published that would formerly not have seen the light of day
– The authors have developed tunnel vision, citing articles that are less diverse and more recently published than was the case in the days of purely paper-based journals, since they are undertaking less journal browsing that was formerly necessary for knowledge discovery
Possibilidades para a publicação on-line
– To enable mark-up of content to scale cost-effectively across the publishing world, it would be necessary to automate it
– The PDF document is both familiar and easy for humans to read, but it is antithetical to the spirit of the Web, being static rather than interactive, and difficult for machines to read, thus inhibiting the development of services that can link information between articles
– Articles are increasingly being assigned DOIs, but this convenient standard is not being fully exploited to provide live links from online citing articles to the cited articles in their reference lists, despite the fact that anything that increases click-through to other articles reciprocally enhances journal usage
– With a few shining exceptions, online journals currently provide no semantic mark-up of text that would facilitate increased understanding of the underlying meaning
– Automated meta-research, i.e. the undertaking of truly novel science
– Downloadable XML
– Download an Excel spreadsheet from the data currently being observed
– Dynamic graphics under the control of the user, which can bring the data alive visually
– Enhanced HTML version/Interaction: “challenges”/tests; ‘drag-and-drop’ images that make it easier for readers to create PowerPoint presentations from published journal image; user toolbox is provided as a semitransparent overlay at the top righthand corner of the article; highlight the text
– Tabbed interface: break away from the traditional linear narrative
– Online reference management tool: save, organize, tag, share, and download bibliographic references, auto-completion
– Structured Digital Abstracts/SDAs are machinereadable summaries of the key data and conclusions of articles; If other journals are to develop SDAs specific to their domains of interest, these will need to be based on similar minimum information standards, to ensure interoperability
– Data fusion (mashups) with information from other research articles and with maps
- For the publisher, the real questions arising from this work are whether the added value achieved was worth the effort invested, and which if any of these enhancements could be brought into mainstream STM journal publishing in an affordable manner
– Clearly they should provide the datasets that underlie the figures and tables in their articles, and machinereadable provenance information about the article itself
– Promote reader traffic to both citing and cited articles, to the benefit of the publishers concerned: ecosystem services
- Editors’ roles in semantic publishing: using domain expertise
– Authors know better than anyone else their domain of discourse, and the position of their article within it